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International Journal of Pharmaceutical Chemistry and Analysis

Extemporaneous compounding: Selective pharmacists with separate skill

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Author Details : A K Mohiuddin*

Volume : 5, Issue : 4, Year : 2018

Article Page : 165-178

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Extemporaneous compounding takes place in community and hospital pharmacies. There are usually specialist compounding pharmacies in major towns and cities, but any pharmacy may undertake compounding as long as they have appropriate facilities according to state-based legislation (e.g. allocated clean bench, specific compounding equipment). Although development is a continuous process, companies are customizing features to meet the majority of patient needs, but the very nature of the process cannot meet all patient needs. The risk-benefit ratio of using traditionally compounded medicines is favorable for patients who require specialized medications that are not commercially available, as they would otherwise not have access to suitable treatment. However, if an FDA-approved drug is commercially available, the use of an unapproved compounded drug confers additional risk with no commensurate benefit. Published reports of independent testing by the FDA, state agencies, and others consistently show that compounded drugs fail to meet specifications at a considerably higher rate than FDA-approved drugs. Compounded sterile preparations pose the additional risk of microbial contamination to patients. In the last 11 years, three separate meningitis outbreaks have been traced to purportedly ‘sterile’ steroid injections contaminated with fungus or bacteria, which were made by compounding pharmacies. The 2012 outbreak has resulted in intense scrutiny of pharmacy compounding practices and increased recognition of the need to ensure that compounding is limited to appropriate circumstances.
Purpose of the Study: The article aims to physico-chemical and economic considerations before compounding; factors and quality control issues; compounding support, training, chemical supplies, types of compounding (specially in hospital and ambulatory care compounding). It should aid to practice the extemporaneous preparation of basic and advanced formulations including pharmacopoeial and non-pharmacopoeial formulations encountered in pharmacy practice, together with requisite documentation, labeling, packaging and counseling requirements. Along with this, they have to study the analysis of formulations and their components and relate these to the clinical performance of medicines. This will help them to investigate, evaluate and report the physical characteristics of formulations including release kinetics and relate these to quality control and preformulation requirements; relate the application of quality control, quality assurance and the principles of good manufacturing practice to regulation of medicine production in home and abroad.
Outline: Background; Introduction; Compounding Factors; Types of Compounding; Identifying Errors and Cause; Types of Compounding; Risk Management

Keywords: Pharmacy Practice; Drugs; Dosage Forms; Compounding; Equipment; Pharmacopeia.

Doi : 10.18231/2394-2797.2018.0027

How to cite : Mohiuddin A K, Extemporaneous compounding: Selective pharmacists with separate skill. Int J Pharm Chem Anal 2018;5(4):165-178

Copyright © 2018 by author(s) and Int J Pharm Chem Anal. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC-BY-NC 4.0) (