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International Journal of Oral Health Dentistry

The influence of salivary components on dental caries in patients with type I diabetes mellitus

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Research Article

Author Details : K Premnath*, Nagaranjani Prakash, Syed Ahmed Raheel

Volume : 5, Issue : 2, Year : 2019

Article Page : 92-96

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Saliva is considered as a intricate oral fluid that keeps the oral cavity hydrated and immune from foreign components. The incidence of dental caries depends on the quantity of saliva secretion. The presence of glucose in excess and reduced salivary concentration has been noted in  Type I diabetes Mellitus  (T1DM) patients, thereby indicating an increased prospect of dental caries associated with T1DM patients.
Aims and Objectives: The study is intended to assess the connection between prevalence of dental caries and the components of saliva like, salivary flow rate, buffer capacity, pH, streptococcus mutans count, salivary glucose level, salivary ?-amylase in T1DM children with age groups between 08-16years. The comparison was done with age and gender to controls involved in the study.
Materials and Methods: A case controlled study was designed incorporating 8-16 year old group of children with T1DM and controls were group same age and sex. Salivary flow rate, pH, DMFS Scores, buffering capacity, salivary glucose level, salivary ?-amylase and streptococcus mutans count were analysed for all the subject groups. Salivary factors were compared by using Unpaired ‘t’ test, whereas chi square test was used to analyse salivary buffering capacity. The association between salivary components and caries prevention between T1DM subjects and non T1DM subjects was done by Pearson correlation test.
Results: The study results showed DMFS scores in permanent dentition, indicated for extraction and filled teeth surfaces affected by caries in primary dentition (DMFS) score in T1DM were 2.610 and non T1DM was 2.6 respectively. The mean of salivary flow rate in T1DM was 0.261ml/min and non T1DM was 0.661ml/min, thus it was lesser in T1DM patients. The T1DM salivary pH showed an average of 6.51 which was lower in comparison with 7.31 in non T1DM patients. The mean salivary glucose level was found to be 2.310mg/dl in T1DM and 0.721 in non T1DM patients, therefore indication a higher salivary glucose levels in T1DM patients. The mean salivary ?-amylase levels were found to be lower in T1DM patients, as it showed 120U/ml in T1DM and 148U/ml in non T1DM patients. The mean of streptococcus mutans count showed no difference between the groups, thereby T1DM patients showing 2.71X105 CFU/ml and non T1DM showing 2.91X105 CFU/ml respectively.
Conclusion: The study found a statistical significance between salivary flow rate, pH, buffering capacity and ?-amylase levels lower in T1DM patients but salivary glucose levels were higher than compared to non T1DM patients. The T1DM patients salivary buffering capacity had a significant association with dental caries. Increased attribution to dental caries associated with salivary components was noted in T1DM cases than non T1DM control group.

Keywords: Saliva, Diabetes, Children.

Doi : 10.18231/j.ijohd.2019.021

How to cite : Premnath K, Prakash N, Raheel S A, The influence of salivary components on dental caries in patients with type I diabetes mellitus. Int J Oral Health Dent 2019;5(2):92-96

Copyright © 2019 by author(s) and Int J Oral Health Dent. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC-BY-NC 4.0) (