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IP Archives of Cytology and Histopathology Research


Diagnostic challenges of a spectrum of cases of Phaeohyphomycosis - A histopathological approach of rare dematiaceous (Melanized / pigmented) fungi


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Research Article

Author Details : G Barathi*, J Thanka, Sai Shalini

Volume : 5, Issue : 2, Year : 2020

Article Page : 120-125


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Abstract

Background: Dematiaceous fungi are a group of melanized fungi which imparts light to dark golden brown
colour to the cell wall of these fungi on histopathological tissue sections (HPE). Due to lack of clinical
suspicion and varied clinico-pathological presentation they are easily mistaken for any chronic swelling.
The three common melanized fungi are phaeohyphomycosis, mycetoma, and chromoblastomycosis.
Aim: Our study aims at deriving an algorithm for diagnosing these fungi on HPE.
Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective study conducted on paraffin blocks of histopathology
proven phaeohyphomycosis and mycetoma retrieved from the surgical pathology case files. Special stains
for fungus were done for confirmation.
Results: Out of 34 cases 29 were phaeohyphomycosis and 5 were mycetoma which included both
immunocompromised and immunocompetent patients. Interestingly it was observed that most of the
cases presented with a trivial penetrating injury or a minor trauma. These melanized fungi were further
distinguished on their clinical presentation and morphological features.
Conclusion: Because of their chronicity and localized lesion, most of the cases undergo surgical excision
which itself is curative. Clinically and radiologically undiagnosed cases are primarily diagnosed on HPE
after surgical excision in many cases. Hence a diagnosis of these melanized fungi on HPE needs an
approach which would be beneficial to all practicing pathologists if they come across such rare cases.

Keywords: Chromoblastomycosis, Melanized fungi, Mycetoma, Phaeohyphomycosis

Doi : 10.18231/j.achr.2020.025

How to cite : Barathi G, Thanka J, Shalini S , Diagnostic challenges of a spectrum of cases of Phaeohyphomycosis - A histopathological approach of rare dematiaceous (Melanized / pigmented) fungi. IP Arch Cytol Histopathol Res 2020;5(2):120-125

Copyright © 2020 by author(s) and IP Arch Cytol Histopathol Res. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC-BY-NC 4.0) (creativecommons.org)